Friday, January 24, 2020

Of Nightingales That Weep by Katherine Paterson Essay -- Of Nightingal

Of Nightingales That Weep Chapter 1 This chapter is about Takiko and her first family home. It tells a lot about her family. They talk about the war In this chapter also. Takiko’s mother decides that she will remarry after her father dies. Takiko’s finds out that her father is died. Chapter 2 This chapter the book tells about Goro who is Takiko’s stepfather. Takiko finds out that Goro is a injured man. She thinks it will be very hard to live with Goro because of his problem. Chapter 3 This chapter tells about Takiko living with Goro for a few months now. It tells how the family has a party for the new year, and they hope that the family will work out. Chapter 4 This chapter is about the child that Takiko’s mother has. She has the baby with Goro. This is when Takiko thinks about her future and she wants to leave the farm and go on into the city and start a new life there. Chapter 5 This chapter is about when Takiko starts her new free life in the capital. She finds a job with the Emperor and makes money to survive on. The job is that she is a servant for the Emperor. She also plays as a musician playing her Kyoto. Chapter 6 In this chapter Takiko plays the Kyoto in from of a large audience that gathered just to here her play on it. This is a trial or a test to see if she belongs at the capital. Chapter 7 In this chapter a war becomes abrupt into the capital, and it forces everyone to leave. Takiko’s mother hears about it and tells her husband t...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Training and Development Paper

Training is an essential part of any field without which even a qualified person cannot contribute effectively to an organization. It is important to evaluate every kind of training in order to determine whether it is producing the desired goals or it needs to be improved. Evaluation mostly involves getting ongoing feedback from the learner, trainer and supervisor so that there is continuous improvement in the quality and quantity. The different ways through which training can be evaluated are as follows: · Effectiveness of training can be measured through employee performance evaluations which are carried out from time to time as a regular appraisal process. The impact of training can be known by evaluating employee’s performance and training can be altered if necessary. · Training also has impact on business performance therefore evaluating business performance through sales, production costs, output, absenteeism, and turnover. Business performance can also be evaluated through qualitative improvements like quality of products and services, customer satisfaction achieved through superior customer service and greater innovation. · The most useful way is through employee feedback. Employees should be asked directly that if the training was according to their expertise and expectations, what have they learnt and how will they put the training into action, can the training be improved so that it better work etc. Employees might hesitate to give responses face to face therefore, training assessment or evaluation forms can be used for this purpose. · Finally, observation can also be a useful technique for evaluation the effectiveness of the training. Observation should be according to the objective of the training. If the training’s purpose was to enhance the communication skills of the employees then it can be observed how employees communicate with each other and with their customers in order to determine the training effectiveness.Training should be treated as a necessity in the organizations and therefore, it should be continuously reinforced and sustained so that the employees can always show better performance than before. Training should be ongoing in order to sustain the performance of the learners. In order to accomplish this training should be never stopped instead it should be properly evaluated and improved from time to time.There will not come any time when employees don’t need training because the business environment is continuously changing which require different abilities and skills at different times. Therefore, continuous training is the right way to sustain and reinforce better performance. Another way is support from the top management. When the superiors support their subordinates in acquiring knowledge then training can be reinforced. Thus, providing training is not the end instead sustaining and reinforcing it is also critical to ensure its effectiveness.REFERENCESBramley, P. (1991). Evalu ating Training Effectiveness: Translating Theory into Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

How to Conjugate the Verb Dovere in Italian

If you are feeling besieged by things you must do and see on your trip to Italy, you will want to reach out for the verb dovere. It means to have to, to be obligated to, and must. Depending on the tense, it also means supposed to and should, and it also means to owe. Modal: Transitive or Intransitive Dovere, an irregular second-conjugation verb, is  transitive, so it takes a  direct object (in the case of owing, its a true object, such as money), and in its compound tenses it is conjugated with the auxiliary verb avere. But dovere is most important for its service as a modal verb, or verbo servile, serving to express the duty to do something; and in that capacity it directly precedes the verb it is serving and, in compound tenses, it most often adopts the auxiliary required by that verb. For example, if what must be done is to pay the bill, dovere takes avere: Ho dovuto pagare il conto. If it serves an intransitive verb with essere, such as partire, for example, it takes essere: Sono dovuto partire (I had to leave). With a reflexive verb, it will take essere. Remember your ground rules for choosing the right auxiliary; sometimes it is a case-by-case choice, depending on the use of the verb at that moment. Ho dovuto vestire i bambini. I had to dress the children (transitive, avere).Mi sono dovuta vestire. I had to get dressed (reflexive, essere). But, a few rules regarding modal verbs: They want avere when they are followed by essere (la mamma ha dovuto essere coraggiosa, or, mom had to be courageous) and, with reflexive verbs, the position of the reflexive pronoun determines whether it uses essere or avere. Note here: Ci siamo dovuti lavare. We had to wash.Abbiamo dovuto lavarci. We had to wash. To Owe In its meaning of to owe something dovere is followed by a noun and takes avere: Ti devo una spiegazione. I owe you an explanation.Marco mi deve dei soldi. Marco owes me some money.Gli devo la vita. I own him my life. Like fellow verbs potere and volere, the acts of having to, wanting to, and being able to do not, most often, have a clear-cut beginning and end, so they often lend themselves to less perfect tenses. You dont use dovere as owing in the passato prossimo to say I owed unless you settled the debt: you use the imperfetto, which then leads to you having paid the debt or not. Gli ho dovuto dei soldi per molto tempo. I owed him money for a long time (and implying that you paid him back).Gli dovevo dei soldi. I owed him money (and perhaps you paid him back). Avere Bisogno Dovere can also be used to mean what in English is casually referred to as needing—devo andare in banca, for example: I need to go to the bank. In truth, true need in Italian is expressed with avere bisogno di, referring to an interior need rather than an obligation. However, at least superficially, the two are easily interchanged. Tu hai bisogno di riposarti, or, tu ti devi riposare mean similar things: you need to rest, or you must/have to rest. In the tables below are examples of dovere used with transitive, intransitive non-reflexive, and reflexive verbs, with essere and avere, in modal function and not. Note, there is no imperative in dovere. Indicativo Presente: Present Indicative An irregular presente. In the present, dovere means the most assured must, though if preceded by forse, it is might have to. Io devo/debbo Io devo lavorare. I must/have to work. Tu devi Tu devi andare. You must go. Lui, lei, Lei deve Luca mi deve dei soldi. Luca owes me some money. Noi dobbiamo Dobbiamo telefonare in ufficio. We have to call the office. Voi dovete Dovete pagare il conto. You must pay the bill. Loro devono Devono svegliarsi/si devono svegliare. They must/need to wake up. Indicativo Passato Prossimo: Indicative Present Perfect The passato prossimo, made of the present of the auxiliary and the past participle, dovuto. With modal verbs there is a finiteness to this tense: it means having had to do something and having done it. If you say, Ho dovuto mangiare dalla nonna, it means you had to and implies that you did. Io ho dovuto/sono dovuto/a Oggi ho dovuto lavorare. Today I had to work. Tu hai dovuto/sei dovuto/a Dove sei dovuto andare oggi? Where did you have to go today? Lui, lei, Lei ha dovuto/à ¨ dovuto/a Luca mi ha dovuto dei soldi per molto tempo. Luca owed me money for a long time. Noi abbiamo dovuto/siamo dovuti/e Abbiamo dovuto telefonare in ufficio per avere una risposta. We had to call the office to get an answer. Voi avete dovuto/siete dovuti/e Avete dovuto pagare perchà © vi toccava. You had to pay because it was your turn. Loro, Loro hanno dovuto/sono dovuti/e Stamattina hanno dovuto svegliarsi/si sono dovuti svegliare presto. This morning they had to get up early. Indicativo Imperfetto: Imperfetto Indicativo In the imperfetto, dovere can be rendered with the English translation supposed to, implying that perhaps things didnt happen as expected, as the subtleties of this modal verb allow. Io dovevo Oggi dovevo lavorare ma ha piovuto. Today I was supposed to work but it rained. Tu dovevi Non dovevi andare a casa? Were you not supposed to go home? Lui, lei, Lei doveva Luca mi doveva dei soldi. Luca owed me some money. Noi dovevamo Dovevamo telefonare in ufficio ma ci siamo dimenticate. We were supposed to call the office but we forgot. Voi dovevate Non dovevate pagare voi? Were you not supposed to pay? Loro, Loro dovevano Dovevano svegliarsi alle 8. They were supposed to wake up at 8. Indicativo Passato Remoto A regular passato remoto. Io dovei/dovetti Quel giorno dovetti lavorare e tornai tardi. That day I had to work late and I came home late. Tu dovesti Ricordo che dovesti andare presto. I remember that you had to go early. Lui, lei, Lei dovà ©/dovette Luca mi dovette dei soldi per molti anni. Luca owed me money for many years. Noi dovemmo Dovemmo telefonare in ufficio per sapere se eravamo promosse. We had to call the office to know if we had passed. Voi doveste Doveste pagare tutto il conto perchà © loro non avevano soldi. You had to pay the whole bill because they didn't have any money. Loro dovettero Si dovettero svegliare/dovettero svegliarsi presto per partire. They had to wake up early to leave. Indicativo Trapassato Prossimo: Past Perfect Indicative The trapassato prossimo, made of the imperfetto of the auxiliary and the past participle. Io avevo dovuto/ero dovuto/a Avevo dovuto lavorare prima di andare a scuola. You had had to work before going to school. Tu avevi dovuto/eri dovuto/a Eri dovuto andare non so dove. You had had to go I don't know where. Lui, lei, Lei aveva dovuto/era dovuto/a Luca mi aveva dovuto dei soldi da molto tempo. Luca had owed my money for a long time. Noi avevamo dovuto/eravamo dovuti/e Avevamo dovuto telefonare in ufficio per avere la risposta. We had had to call the office to have an answer. Voi avevate dovuto/eravate dovuti/e Avevate dovuto pagare sempre voi perchà © eravate i pià ¹ generosi. You had always had to pay because you were the most generous. Loro, Loro avevano dovuto/erano dovuti/e Si erano dovuti svegliare/avevano dovuto svegliarsi presto per andare a scuola. They had had to wake up early to go to school. Indicativo Trapassato Remoto: Preterite Past Indicative Il trapassato remoto, made of the passato remoto of the auxiliary and the past participle. A very remote literary storytelling tense. Io ebbi dovuto/fui dovuto/a Dopo che ebbi dovuto lavorare, andai a riposare. After I had had to work, I went to rest. Tu avesti dovuto/fosti dovuto/a Appena che fosti dovuto andare, mi chiamasti. As soon as you had had to go, you called me. Lui, lei, Lei ebbe dovuto/fu dovuto/a Dopo che Luca mi ebbe dovuto i soldi per molto tempo, me li dette. After Luca had owned me the money for so long, he gave it to me. Noi avemmo dovuto/fummo dovuti/e Dopo che avemmo dovuto telefonare in ufficio per sapere di nostro figlio, il generale si scusà ². After we had had to call the office to have news of our son, the general apologized. Voi aveste dovuto/fummo dovuti/e Aveste dovuto pagare perchà © nessun altri volle pagare. You had had to pay because no one else would. Loro, Loro ebbero dovuto/furono dovuti/e Dopo che si furono dovuti svegliare/ebbero dovuto svegliarsi all'alba, furono stanchi tutto il viaggio. After they had had to get up at dawn, they stayed tired the rest of the trip. Indicativo Futuro Semplice: Simple Future Indicative Il futuro semplice, irregular, translates to will have to. Io dovrà ² Quest'anno dovrà ² lavorare molto. This year I will have to work a lot. Tu dovrai Presto dovrai andare. Soon you will have to go. Lui, lei, Lei dovrà   Domani Luca non mi dovrà   pià ¹ niente. Tomorrow Luca will not owe me anything anymore. Noi dovremo Dovremo telefonare in ufficio per avere una risposta. We will have to call the office to have an answer. Voi dovrete Domani dovrete pagare voi. Tomorrow you will have to pay. Loro, Loro dovranno Domani dovranno svegliarsi presto per il viaggio. Tomorrow they will have to wake up early for the trip. Indicativo Futuro Anteriore: Future Perfect Indicative A regular futuro anteriore, made of the simple future of the auxiliary and the past participle. A good tense for surmising, too. Io avrà ² dovuto/sarà ² dovuto/a Se avrà ² dovuto lavorare, sarà ² stanco. If I will have had to work, I will be tired. Tu avrai dovuto/sarai dovuto/a A quest'ora domani sarai dovuto andare via. Tomorrow at this time you will have had to leave. Lui, lei, Lei avrà   dovuto/sarà   dovuto/a Forse Luca avrà   dovuto dei soldi anche a Luigi? Maybe Luca owed Luigi money too? Noi avremo dovuto/saremo dovuti/e Dopo che avremo telefonato in ufficio avremo la risposta. After we will have called the office we will have our answer. Voi avrete dovuto/sarete dovuti/e Dopo che avrete dovuto pagare voi, sarete senz'altro di cattivo umore. After you will have had to pay, you will be in a bad mood. Loro, Loro avranno dovuto/saranno dovuti/e Sicuramente si saranno dovuti svegliare/avranno dovuto svegliarsi presto per il viaggio. Surely they will have had to get up early for their trip. Congiuntivo Presente: Present Subjunctive An irregular congiuntivo presente. Che io debba Pare assurdo che debba lavorare a Natale. It seems absurd that I have to work for Christmas. Che tu debba Non voglio che tu debba andare. I don't want you to have to go. Che lui, lei, Lei debba Credo che Luca mi debba dei soldi. I think that Luca owes me money. Che noi dobbiamo Temo che domani dobbiamo telefonare in ufficio. I fear that tomorrow we will have to call the office. Che voi dobbiate Sono felice che dobbiate pagare voi. I am happy that you have to pay. Che loro, Loro debbano Temo che si debbano svegliare presto. I fear that they have to get up early. Congiuntivo Passato: Present Perfect Subjunctive A regular congiuntivo passato, made of the present subjunctive of the auxiliary and the past participle. Che io abbia dovuto/sia dovuto/a Nonostante abbia dovuto lavorare per Natale, sono felice. Though I had to work on Christmas, I am happy. Che tu abbia dovuto/sia dovuto/a Sono felice, nonostante tu sia dovuto andare. Although you had to go, I am happy. Che lui, lei, Lei abbia dovuto/sia dovuto/a Non mi importa che Luca mi abbia dovuto dei soldi da molto tempo. It doesn't matter to me that Luca has owed me money for a long time. Che noi abbiamo dovuto/siamo dovuti/e Sono arrabbiata che abbiamo dovuto telefonare in ufficio per avere una risposta. I am angry that we had to call the office to have an answer. Che voi abbiate dovuto/siate dovuti/e Mi dispiace che abbiate dovuto pagare voi. I am sorry that you had to pay. Che loro, Loro abbiano dovuto/siano dovuti/e Mi dispiace che si siano dovuti svegliare/abbiano dovuto svegliarsi presto. I am sorry that they had to get up early. Congiuntivo Imperfetto: Imperfect Subjunctive A regular congiuntivo imperfetto. Che io dovessi La mamma non voleva che dovessi lavorare domani. Mom didn't want me to have to work tomorrow. Che tu dovessi Vorrei che tu non dovessi andare. I wish that you didn't have to go. Che lui, lei, Lei dovesse Vorrei che Luca non mi dovesse dei soldi. I wish that Luca didn't owe me money. Che noi dovessimo Speravo che non dovessimo telefonare in ufficio. I was hoping that we would not have to call the office. Che voi doveste Vorrei che non doveste pagare voi. I wish that you didn't have to pay. Che loro, Loro dovessero Speravo che non si dovessero svegliare presto. I hoped that they would not have to wake up early. Congiuntivo Trapassato: Past Perfect Subjunctive The congiuntivo trapassato, made of the imperfetto congiuntivo of the auxiliary and the past participle. Che io avessi dovuto/fossi dovuto/a La mamma vorrebbe che non avessi dovuto lavorare per Natale. Mom wishes that I had not had to work on Christmas. Che tu avessi dovuto/fossi dovuto/a Vorrei che tu non fossi dovuto andare. I wish that you had not had to go. Che lui, lei, Lei avesse dovuto/fosse dovuto/a Vorrei che Luca non mi avesse dovuto dei soldi. I wish that Luca had not owed me money. Che noi avessimo dovuto/fossimo dovuti/e Speravo che non avessimo dovuto telefonare in ufficio. I had hoped that we didn't have to call the office. Che voi aveste dovuto/foste dovuti/e Vorrei che non aveste dovuto pagare. I wish that you had not had to pay. Che loro, Loro avessero dovuto/fossero dovuti/e Speravo che non si fossero dovuti svegliare/avessero dovuto svegliarsi presto. I hoped that they had not had to wake up early. Condizionale Presente: Present Conditional An irregular presente condizionale: should. Io dovrei Dovrei lavorare domani. I should work tomorrow. Tu dovresti Dovresti andare. You should go. Lui, lei, Lei dovrebbe Luca non mi dovrebbe dei soldi se non ne avesse avuto bisogno. Luca would not owe me money if he had not had the need. Noi dovremmo Dovremmo telefonare in ufficio. We should call the office. Voi dovreste Non dovreste pagare voi. You shouldn't have to pay. Loro, Loro dovrebbero Se sono organizzati, non dovrebbero svegliarsi troppo presto. If they are organized, they should not have to get up too early. Condizionale Passato: Past Conditional Il condizionale passato, made of the present conditional of the auxiliary and the past participle, translates best to should have. Io avrei dovuto/sarei dovuto/a Avrei dovuto lavorare domani ma faccio festa. I should have worked tomorrow but I am taking the day off. Tu avresti dovuto/saresti dovuto/a Saresti dovuto andare domani, senza di me. You should have gone tomorrow, without me. Lui, lei, Lei avrebbe dovuto/sarebbe dovuto/a Se non fosse per te, Luca mi avrebbe dovuto ancora dei soldi. If it had not been for you, Luca would still have owed me money. Noi avremmo dovuto/saremmo dovuti/e Avremmo dovuto telefonare in ufficio noi. We should have called the office. Voi avreste dovuto/sareste dovuti/e Avreste dovuto pagare voi. You should have paid. Loro, Loro avrebbero dovuto/sarebbero dovuti/e Si sarebbero dovuti svegliare/avrebbero dovuto svegliarsi prima. They should have woken up earlier. Infinito Presente Passato: Present Past Infinitive The infinito dovere is an important noun in its own right, meaning duty. Dovere 1. Il dovere viene prima del piacere. 2. Il tuo dovere à ¨ di studiare. 3. Mi risolleva non dovermi alzare presto. 4. Mi dispiace doverti deludere. 1. Duty comes before pleasure. 2. Your duty is to study. 3. It consoles me to not have to get up early. 4. I am sorry to have to disappoint you. Avere dovuto Non mi fa piacere avere dovuto pagare la multa. It does not please me to have to have paid the fine. Essere dovuto/a/i/e Mi ha fatto bene essermi dovuta alzare presto. It was good for me to have to get up early. Participio Presente Passato: Present Past Participle Aside from its auxiliary function, the participio passato dovuto is used as a noun and an adjective meaning due, owed, needed, or appropriate. Dovente - Dovuto 1. Dobbiamo pagare il dovuto. 2. Non ti lamentare pià ¹ del dovuto. 1. We must pay what's owed. 2. Don't complain more than what's appropriate. Dovuto/a/i/e Sono dovuta andare. I had to go. Gerundio Presente Passato: Present Past Gerund The gerund occupies an important role in Italian. Dovendo 1. Dovendo studiare, sono rimasta a casa. 2. Dovendoti le mie scuse, ho voluto incontrarti. 1. Having to study, I stayed home. 2. Owing you my apologies, I wanted to see you. Avendo dovuto 1. Avendo dovuto studiare, sono rimasta a casa. 2. Avendoti dovuto le mie scuse, ho cercato di vederti. 1. Having had to study, I stayed home. 2. Having owed you my apologies, I tried to see you. Essendosi dovuto/a/i/e 1. Essendosi dovuta riposare, Lucia à ¨ rimasta a casa. 2. Essendosi dovuti alzare presto, sono andati a dormire. 1. Having needed to rest, Lucia stayed home. 2. Having needed/having to get up early, they went to sleep.